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Tuesday, April 24, 2018

WickedSwords Etsy Store Review 2018 by Dan Gregory (AMx ReBorN) (Wicked Swords KATANA Sword Review 2018)

This is a Review of the Etsy Store "Wicked Swords".
As well as, more specifically, the Handmade Japanese Samurai Sword; an Authentic KATANA, Full Tang Blade (Sharpened)


...As on their Etsy Page: https://www.etsy.com/shop/WickedSwords

NOTE: Availability may fluctuate on the Etsy Page, recommend going to their Home Page for guaranteed availability.

...Of all commercially available (for sale) Sharpened Katana's, this one, pictured below - certainly has the most decorative design and my favorite mix of Colors. I s'pose it can be gender-neutral in terms of Colors, and the Blade is easily removed from the Sheathe and easily swingable. 




The seller, "Wicked Swords" - of whom I conversed with "Eric" - is very fast at engaging any questions and communicating in a sound, professional manner. 


Upon receiving the Sword, I noticed that all packing and covering was done VERY Professionally. Right down to the packing slip - you get a sense of professionalism and enthusiasm.

The Sword is exceptionally Sharp, and I'd recommend NOT touching the tip with any amount of pressure, with your fingertips; I didn't do this of course - just a word of CAUTION (common sense).

The blade easily punctures many materials and if you know anything about Katana's - its not just the Sharpness, but the curvature and blade design that makes it especially dangerous.

...As such, this Sword is a great 'Collectors' item and No I don't recommend using it to "COLLECT" heads in this Day and Age. ;-)

The handle is fairly long but not so long as to make the Sword difficult or bulky.

The Sword is NOT that Heavy, it is durable and certainly easy to use.

...I'd recommend you train with it - old-school style and see how nice it really is.

A Big Thanks to Eric and Wicked Swords on Etsy for crafting a great-hand-made Sword with Professional DESIGN and GREAT Pricing.

It runs just about 200$.

OTHER FACTS ABOUT THIS BLADE

  • It easily slices boxes, some light wood and clearly can puncture anything lighter - so don't try it on live beings.
  • It came with a nice sword cover and was beautifully packed and secured.
  • The handle is very nicely constructed and makes this Sword ideal for visual appeal and practical usage - whatever that may be.
  • It is exceptionally sharp, as stated on Bullet 1 - but I figured I'd say it again just to let the Readers know its no joke. :-)
  • Its easy to swing and does not require a lot of Strength, just Technique.
  • It is cleaned and augmented prior to being shipped.




In/Tags: wickedswords review 2018, wicked swords etsy review 2018, wickedswords etsy store review 2018, wicked swords review, authentic katana full tang blade review 2018, katana sword on etsy review 2018

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Unusual Causes of OCD - Explored! (Area-1255 Exclusive)

***INTRODUCTION***

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is a frequently debilitating Anxiety Disorder characterized by Obsessive-thoughts, mostly based on irrational or exaggerated Fears, which are then alleviated by performing a ritual or "Compulsion". Though many people understand the concept of this disorder, and more information is Publicly available regarding the neural-basis for it - there remains other, less known causes which have not been covered deeply enough.

This article aims to outline other, more 'unusual' causes, or causes that are not typical.

We have scoured the Internet to collect information and case studies regarding Pathogen, Chemical and Toxin induced OCD-Illness.



MYCOTOXIN INDUCED OCD Symptoms
(Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as a Result of Mold Exposure)

Although Mold is a well-known and somewhat common cause of Mental Illness, there hasn't really been an article linking the reports together to describe its association with OCD and the types of OCD it can cause.

Here are several reports of mycotoxin (mold toxin) induced OCD-symptoms.
  • The first Case report is a 54-year old homeless white man who presented with Moderate Paranoia, obsessive thoughts, intense and labile affect and self-medication using Benzodiazepines [1]. The man acknowledged he had been infected with Black Mold and mycotoxins, and thus had some Awareness of the problem. However the Psychosis and OCD-symptoms being marked by frequent, Obsessive thoughts and periods of low Insight indicate long-term mental effects of Black Mold exposure.
  • A Large Publication on "Neuropathic Itch" acknowledged the occurrence of Mold-induced Obsessive itching behavior and psychological problems [2]. Although it did not delve into it too much - it did indicate that other 'syndromes' may be diagnosed along with it and the collection of such syndromes may lead at a Mold-related illness/dysfunction.
  • A Report called "Detection of Mycotoxins in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" examined the association of Mycotoxin/Mold Exposure in the pathophysiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). It also referenced some reports that examined the connection between Mold Exposure and Anxiety symptoms; including OCD-symptoms. 
Possible Mechanisms and Their Connection With 'Type' of OCD.

  1. The most probable explanation is neuroinflammation. Any form of Mold Exposure will lead to an increase in inflammatory chemicals within the Body [3]. These can cause alterations in CNS-excitability and lead to destruction of neurons - leading to a dysfunction in communication across Brain Regions. Since Basal Ganglia dysfunction is implicated in OCD [4] and Mold Exposure can affect this region [5] this is the most formidable explanation for Mold-induced OCD. Another study also quite directly addresses this cause and the connection to  OCD.
  2. The Mold Species most responsible for this Basal Ganglia dysfunction is: Stachybotrys chartarum [6]. Well-known Black Mold to be found in the majority of Damp/Moldy buildings.
  3. In some cases, this results in absolute Encephalopathy (Clinical Brain Dysfunction/Disease) [7]. This would further worsen communicational dysfunction and can lead to more dramatic OCD-symptoms along with severe Brain Fog or Cognitive Dysfunction.
  4. Fusaric Acid (FA) inhibits the enzyme Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase [8] which converts Dopamine into Norepinephrine; this may (theoretically) lead to the 'Low Stimulation' Subtype of OCD; characterized by Obsessive/Intrusive thoughts, Paranoia/Delusions and low Energy along with Anhedonia (lack of pleasure) described in the following article
  5. In other words, if exposed to Fusaric Acid (FA) - one may develop a Norepinephrine Deficiency.
  6. This leads to low levels of Awareness, Cognition, and CNS Stimulation. As well as other 'distortions' in Perception, and thought disorders as well as Obsessive & Compulsive Symptoms.

PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

  1. Basal Ganglia dysfunction can be found in Agricultural Workers with significant Pesticide exposure [9].
  2. Many of them have developed Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [10].
  3. In these cases other mechanisms of OCD-induction by Pesticides also have been elucidated, including, Cholinergic dysfunction [11] - that is, an absolute excess or deficiency of Acetylcholine (ACh).
  4. Since Nicotine has been used to TREAT OCD in a subset of Patients, it may be plausible that downregulation of dysfunction of Nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors due to Pesticides may be the culprit [12].
*Note as with Below*: Alpha-7-nicotinic receptors *worsen* OCD but Alpha-4-beta-2-receptors "improve" OCD [12].

ENDOCANNIBINOID DEFICIENCY

Mouse and animal studies showed that activating the Endocannibinoid-system can reduce Compulsive behaviors and 'bad habits' [13] [14] [15]. Reducing the breakdown of naturally produced Endocannibinoids also proved the same Benefit [16].

In humans, a Polymorphism in the CB1-Receptor Gene or Cannibinoid-Receptor 1 was directly to Tourette's Syndome (TS) and OCD-Behaviors [17].

A Large Review also examined the utility of modulating the Endocannibinoid-System in order to treat multiple forms of Anxiety Disorders; including Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder.

Endocannibinoids play an essential role in 'habit formation' including Hoarding - thus, they may be the New Age target for these specific OCD-type disorders.

Hypothetically, something like CBD-Oil might help OCD, and has been shown to help other Anxiety Disorders; to which it has PLENTY of research as well [18].


TOO MANY NICOTINIC-A7-RECEPTORS OR TOO MUCH ACETYLCHOLINE

OCD-Behavior and Stereotypy induced (caused) by Cocaine apparently are mediated by alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine Receptors [19], which is to say, Cocaine somehow stimulates release of Acetylcholine or increases its affinity at that particular receptor, with more *probability* of the former; considering what we know about Monoamines and how they influence Acetylcholine-release, Dopamine in particular [20].

LOW OR HIGH PHOSPHATE/PHOSPHORUS

Serum phosphate and anxiety in major depression; a Review went over the role of Phosphates in Anxiety & Depression. The Review concluded LOW levels of Phosphate can cause Anxiety and contribute to Depression symptoms in these patients.

However, another Review looking at the BRAINS of Psychiatric Patients, concluded abnormally high levels can cause these symptoms as well.



***CENTRAL SOURCES***





Neurotoxic Effects. (NIH/PubMed)
In/Tags: unusual causes of ocd, strange causes of ocd, atypical ocd and atypical cause, atypical etiology ocd, pathogen triggering ocd, other things that cause ocd 2018, ocd causes explored 2018

Thursday, April 19, 2018

OCD : A Matter of "Low-Activation Syndrome" In Many Patients... (Low CNS Stimulation State and OCD/Obsessions Explored)

Although OCD is classified as an "Anxiety Disorder", it is atypical in that, findings regarding norepinephrine levels in *most* Anxiety Disorders have shown they are typically high [1] (consistent with a High Stress:High-Anxiety Paradigm [2])...whereas OCD may be the sole exception and Norepinephrine-enhancing agents such as Reboxetine [3] and Clomipramine (Anafranil) (approved for OCD) [4] are often VERY effective at treating "Resistant OCD"...

In addition, Adderall (mixed amphetamine) can treat OCD in a subgroup of Patients who fail to respond to other treatments [5] [6]. Amphetamines are well-known Norepinephine-enhancers (though they also raise Serotonin & Dopamine)

Finally, Deep Brain Stimulation and other "stimulation" therapies are often the last resort for severe, treatment-resistant OCD [7] [8] [9].

This all proves a theory of mine as well as other Doctors such as Ray Peat who state that both Depression & Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder are the result of an "Energy Imbalance" [10]...often marked by negative-thoughts which can actually be a result of a "tired brain" rather than an Active Brain. David Healy, another well-known Doctor in the field of Psychiatric and Neurological Medicine - has also published many articles which suggest similar concepts.

Also moving in that direction, another "Energy-Imbalance" disorder; ADHD, is often diagnosed in those with a Family History of OCD and often is the first (pediatric) diagnosis which is then followed by OCD in years following the initial  diagnosis...this trend is not 100% and surely varies [11]. However, since similar Genes can create the "neurobiological environment" for both ADHD and OCD - and since there is *often* cross-over - it stands to reason that in many Patients there is a similar etiology for both disorders...

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) affected individuals often also have other Health Complaints; even if hypochondriasis is completely ruled out. One of the main complaints is a feeling of mental "Fatigue" [12] [13], high-motivation followed by a period of "burn-out" or low motivation [14] - a pattern often recognized since Childhood [15] and often, Pain disorders or Chronic Muscle Pain [16].

While it can be argued that these can be a RESULT of the disorder itself causing significant mental stress, there are studies to suggest that they may be as well, precursor factors, which are then reinforced, hastened, or made worse by the OCD-disorder [17]


Meaning the following...
  1. Chronic Fatigue type-Syndromes may lead to changes in the Brain, if untreated, which can lead to particularly, Pure "O" OCD or Obsession-predominant OCD [18].
  2. OCD can then Worsen Fatigue/Stress [19].
  3. The Cycle continues.

***NEUROTRANSMITTER RESEARCH***

  • OCD can be a result of elevated Serotonin levels [20] or deficient levels [21]. Obsession-Predominant OCD trends toward higher-monoamine levels but poor usage [22].
  • It appears that despite this - the reason SSRI's are "effective" for OCD though, is because of their effects on "neuropeptides" like Oxytocin, Beta-Endorphin and Vasopressin [23].
  • Low NMDA/Glycine-receptor activity; a type of Glutamate-receptor - has been found in OCD-patients [24], often a result of an altered NMDA-related gene passed down [25] and NMDA-agonists such as D-Cycloserine can prove helpful in ridding the Patient of Obsessions and Compulsions *Psychologically* [26]. Something called "Fear Extinction" used in an aspect  of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Called "Response Prevention Therapy" tailored specifically to OCD-Behaviors.
  • In addition to Human evidence, Animals with low NMDA activation seem to show more compulsions.
  • High-Dose Glycine can treat refractory/treatment-resistant OCD in many cases [27].


CONTRADICTIONS THAT JUSTIFY THE LOW-STIMULATION STATE OF OCD


  • OCD Patients seem to have higher Brain-dopamine levels in some Brain regions [28] whereas in others the level is Low [29] - but a high-dopamine level does not explain the high-rates of Anhedonia (lack of pleasure/enjoyment) in treatment-naive OCD patients [30], who also seem to experience the symptom more than the Average person, untreated
  • Anhedonia, typically a "low-dopamine" symptom - seems to indicate that, at BEST, the Dopamine levels fluctuate and often become low in Patients with OCD - suggested in this study - and at WORST, we have it all wrong...and its just a 'coincidence' that Dopamine is elevated in *some*, but not all OCD-Patient studies. 
  • If OCD is primarily a Low-Dopamine state - at least in a subgroup of Patients, then SSRI's may very well make the Patients worse...if not the OCD, then AT LEAST the Anhedonia symptoms (if present) and Depression symptoms (if present).
  • Dopamine D2-Receptors are substantially LOWER in the Brains of OCD-Patients [31] [32]. The Endocrine Responses (Growth Hormone Release) are lower in OCD-Patients treated with a dopamine stimulating drug (Apomorphine) [33]. This would indicate low Dopamine 'D2S' or "AutoReceptor" activity [34] - which would, in theory, mean enhanced 'firing' rate of Dopamine and enhanced Dopamine (DA) release in OCD.
  • Problem is that theory can quickly go to shit when you consider that Dopamine D2 'autoreceptors' also "regulate" GABA-ergic neurons [35] so *technically* activating Dopamine D2-autoreceptors; which decrease Dopamine, can also really INCREASE Dopamine in discreet areas of the Brain by decreasing Brain GABA-concentrations.
  • This was proven in Animals and Humans lacking Dopamine D2-autoreceptors who seem to have reduced, even eliminated responses to Cocaine and Amphetamine [36] [37].
  • So Dopamine D2 Receptors, 'autoreceptors' or not - seem to be a very LARGE contradiction that does not seem to be a good base point to work from as it can lead down two seemingly opposite roads.
  • On one hand, an OCD-Patient may have LESS Dopamine floating around because of more inhibitory GABA activity due to less Dopaminergic "control" of GABA (D2S-Autoreceptor Mediated) - on the other hand, they  may have MORE Dopamine firing and release due to less autoreceptor influence on basal (resting) dopamine release.
  • In either case, it does NOT justify a CONSISTENTLY high Dopamine level, rather, a fluctuating one with a higher probability of being Low.
  • If certain Brain Regions are 'dysfunctional' due to Elevated GABA levels in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients - whereas in others the extracellular  Glutamate is high - this creates what we call a 'confused' communication system where one Brain region is abnormally calm and the Basal Ganglia, for example, is practically haywire in OCD [38].
  • Interestingly, 'stimulating' neurotransmitters such as Norepinephrine can actually 'stabilize' the projecting nerve terminals and forward, eventually the Basal Ganglia activity by modulating other neurotransmitters such as Serotonin and GABA [39].
  • A 'defect' in Norepinephrine-transmission was found in OCD-patients compared to 'healthy controls' [40].
  • Streptococcus (strep throat) and Herpes Simplex; both of which cause Fatigue and are capable of causing nervous system changes - have been strongly implicated in the development of OCD in Children and Adults [see Strep study here] [see Herpes study here].

***MAIN CONCLUSIONS***

When carefully screening for biases, both in my own Writing and in Published Research - it appears that not only does research truly justify the existence of a Low-Activation or "Low-Stimulation" syndrome in many people with OCD - but also that it is an important aetiological factor and sustained fatigue may pave the way for 'negativistic' thought patterns versus 'optimistic' thought patterns associated with a healthy degree of CNS-stimulation.

The Frontal hypoactivity consistent with abnormally increased inhibitory nerve activity/tone in OCD also indicates a dysfunctional nervous system...this could indeed be the true link between Norepinephrine and OCD - since Norepinephrine is the main 'driving' input and ITS transporters take precedent in regulating excitatory Dopamine function in the Prefrontal Cortex [41]...suggesting again, a Norepinephine-deficiency, especially in the Frontal Regions of the Brain in OCD.

Role of radiology in central nervous system stimulation - a report also dived into the important role in absolute stimulation of the CNS and its specific correlation to Mental Disorders, including OCD.

  One of the conclusions, besides far-reaching therapeutic value in treating Basal Ganglia-related disorders (such as OCD) is that the stimulation helped to improve and stabilize nerve communication in these Regions...

Again, consistent with my Theory, and upon talking to OCD-sufferers, describing similar phenomenons and trends (such as the elimination of OCD with hard stimulants). 

Of course, NOT ALL OCD-affected persons exist on this spectrum. Many will have a worsening of OCD from Stimulants...its  just that there is another fairly large portion (maybe 35-40%) who by nature of functional Brain Imaging (fMRI etc) [42] and other neuroimaging studies clearly fall into the 'low-stimulation' category and thus, may benefit from Stimulants versus SSRI's. 


LOGICAL EVIDENCE OF LOW-STIMUATION IN OCD

This may be the greatest argument out of all for the "low-stimulation" subtype of OCD.

When our Brains are tired and fatigued, ANY task tends to feel EXHAUSTING. As a result, many of us get into the habit of dwelling on negative or pessimistic thoughts. 

...For many OCD-sufferers, this 'tired' phenomenon is directly related to their Obsessions [43] - and for many OCD-affected individuals, their OCD-simply vanishes when something shifts their focus, a high-priority, a loved one, danger, basically any activating circumstance which forces the persons Mind to focus on the environment and the people in it versus on the thoughts in their own head.

THINK: What is the central reason why Stimulants help both ADHD and Motivational deficits; its clear-sharp FOCUS. Its not just about the desire for something, but actually the will and more specifically, the consistent ATTENTION to that Task.

...Perhaps, that is why Stimulants help some people with OCD...they shift people 'out of their head' and into the real-world...the environment, logical things, common-sense things associated with the Norepinephine system of the Brain.

Stimulants are thus - a force to Ground a subset of OCD-Patients back into Reality by breaking the cycle of 'tired brain syndrome' and thus eliciting true focus on things that actually matter.

Its also of course possible, that others issues (hormones) influencing Brain stimulation are going on in OCD-Patients; of both sexes. Particularly, a deficiency in Progesterone, Estrogen or too much or too little of both could be a driving factor [see study].

Still, if taken at face value, any deficiency of say Thyroid hormones [44] or even Testosterone [45] could probably set the ground work for this specific subtype of OCD: characterized by "low-stimulation" and related syndromes [46].


As a Final Note: Vitamin B12 Deficiency - B12 of which which stimulates Norepinephrine, CNS activity and is *necessary* for all monoamine activities in the Brain - was found to be a "causative" factor in low-stimulation OCD-types.

***FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY***


  1. In this article we have explored functional deficits in neurotransmitters, rather than excesses, apparent in ALL OCD-subjects, a low Frontal EEG-report, possibly reduced Dopamine levels and almost certainly reduced Norepinephine activity in the frontal lobe.
  2. Fatigue Syndromes/CFS, Chronic Pain, and many other Physical illnesses often precipitate OCD - many of which themselves cause Fatigue, and where CNS pathogens such as Streptococcus (strep throat) and Herpes Simplex can easily cause a form of mild neurodegeneration; primarily in Brain Regions that are *known* to be dysfunctional in OCD.
  3. That "FOCUS" and "LOGIC" often go hand-in-hand, and Intrusive Thoughts often aren't rational or logical - thus, this reflects a Central "under-stimulation" as stimulating neurotransmitters like Norepinephrine and Histamine tend to get us to focus on our environment and logical tasks rather than things inside our head, or meaningless compulsions which have no real momentary nor financial value etc.
  4. These conclusions of course, exclude hand-washing and organizing of Work-Desk, or school-materials etc - as those are environment related tasks and thus those with those EXTERNAL forms of OCD rather than "racing thought" or "intrusive thought/obsessional" types probably have more than Enough CNS-activity.
  5. It is only the Intrusive Thought type - or "Pure O" OCD which is (generally) characterized by Low CNS Activity.
***CAUTIONS IN INTERPRETING THE INFORMATION WITHIN THIS ARTICLE***

It should be noted that we at Area-1255 do not universally recommend stimulants to OCD-sufferers. Even if you believe firmly that you fall into one of these "low-stimulation" groups, you should still speak to a Psychiatrist or Physician regarding the proper treatment option - and if you'd like, you can bring up the information in this article as a Starting Point for Discussion. 

Kindly point out that Our Work is fully referenced at each point, and encourage the Physician/Psychiatrist to read into the References.

In regards to research, a final point should be made that not all stimulants are built equally; that is, some have an utter propensity to worsen OCD regardless of which 'type' you have...even the Low-Energy types often find that certain stimulants, like Yohimbine, worsen their OCD. The same can be said about Beta-Adrenergic Agonists such as Albuterol or the bodybuilding/fat loss drug Clenbuterol.


  • Modafanil; a "wakefulness" drug also classified as a "smart drug" or Nootropic - has not really produced any Positive studies proving one way or another with regard to OCD symptoms, in fact, the only true unbiased study with Modafanil in regards to OCD - is that it exacerbated the Obsessional Component of OCD-Patients already being medicated.
  • This seems to indicate that 1.) Modafanil's Norepinephrine properties aren't strong enough to positively impact OCD and 2.) That Modafanils complex effects on the Glutamate-system [47] or its inhibition of GABA-currents [48] worsen the cortical dysfunction seen in OCD, of all types. 3.) Lastly, that Modafanil seems to *somehow* activate the Serotonin 5-HT3-Receptor [49] and this Serotonin Receptor, when activated, worsens OCD-symptoms [50].

***OTHER SOURCES***





Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine (ISSN: 2213-9885 ― Volume 12, 2018)
Jonathan T Ting, Guoping Feng*
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA









Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei. (NIH/PubMed)

Modafinil elicits sympathomedullary activation. (Taneja I, et al. Hypertension. 2005.) (NIH/PubMed)

Modafinil as a Catecholaminergic Agent: Empirical Evidence and Unanswered Questions (NIH/PubMed)

Comparative Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Response Inhibition Neural Networks in Healthy Subjects (NIH/PubMed)

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (NIH/PubMed)

Clinical and neurocognitive changes with modafinil in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report. (NIH/PubMed)

Exacerbation of Obsessions With Modafinil in 2 Patients With Medication-Responsive Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (NIH/PubMed)



In/Tags: ocd low activation, ocd and low norepinephrine, ocd and stress hormones, ocd low stress hormones, ocd high norepinephrine, obsessive compulsive disorder and tired brain, ocd caused by fatigue

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Sex Chromosomes, Chromosome Disorders And Brain/Psychiatric Disorders (Area-1255 EXCLUSIVE!)


A study based on the findings of researchers at Uppsala University in Sweden got me interested in a possible link between Chromosome disorders and Brain Health. Even though the study demonstrated that Y-chromosome loss occurred in Chronic Smokers, that is, that in Male smokers Y-Chromosomes were not detected in their blood cells - there were also other, more significant implications. 

The main implication was that the Y-Chromosome loss could - like many other cellular abnormalities, lead to increased risk of Cancer [1]. Because cellular abnormalities are also present in Mental Disorders - I decided to research a little more.


...Well, A LOT more.


Turns out that Y-Chromosome loss has also been found in....


  1. Those that successfully carry out a suicide [2].
  2. Alzheimer's Patients [3].
  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Individuals (some) [4].
  4. Schizophrenics* [5].
  5. Those with other, diverse Brain abnormalities [6].
When I have a hunch: I'm usually right...

The National Institute of Health (NIH) published two main articles that everyone reading this article should read. They form the basis for most of this article...the difference is we made it easier - and more interesting. It is imperative to understand the information contained within the below articles in order to understand the concept of Chromosomes in Human Health, bodily/cellular Homeostasis and Disease, including Brain Disease.

The third article is also heavily important and expands in many ways on the first two, but the first two are prerequisites to understand fully the third, and how it relates to the Gut-Immune-Brain connection and links that all to chromosomes!

Y-Chromosome and Violence
Does anyone remember when a bunch of dubious reporters and pseudoscientists attempted to claim that if you "had an extra Y-chromosome you may be more prone to violence or even becoming a killer???". 

Of course, it was debunked.

What we later find out is that IF anything - its an extra X-Chromosome (passed from Mother to Child) that can lead to increased propensity for Aggression/Violence [7].

Not to mention the Warrior-gene is Maternally transmitted - and this gene has been associated with Violence, in Males [8].

...With that being said, it is hard to argue against the percentage of people in Prison who have an "extra-Y" who seem to also engage in more brutal and consistent acts of Aggression [9]

Problem is - we don't know if it is BECAUSE of the extra-Y or because of other similarities NOT CHECKED FOR in their genetic code...or possibly even epigenetic (drug or chemical induced changes in genes) or post-transcriptional changes (perhaps adaptational).

Indeed, other studies such as this one, have examined more in-depth a connection between specific Y-Chromosome abnormalities in certain families with other risk factors, and violence. Racial differences may also play a role [!].

Another Review made some other interesting points - perhaps elucidating a greater point that it is the combination of YYX-related "foundational" changes + other more historic (even ancient!) gene mutations that lay the groundwork and defective peddles for Abnormal Social and Violent behavior.

X-Chromosome, Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Cognitive/Intellectual Superiority or Inferiority

Although not the same, the X-Chromosome is passed from the Mother to a Male Child, and one from the Father to a female child and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) is pretty universally, from the Mother to a Child of either sex.

...Whereas the X-Chromosome has been linked to Mental and Brain Disorders, the mtDNA concept is much more complex and we will get into that later in this article.

What we know is that *primarily*, X-Chromosome's can shape parts of the Brain concerning executive functions and decision making - X-Chromosome's contain information and sequences that allows the Prefrontal Cortex to develop properly (thickness and volume during early brain development) [!].

These are classified as "imprinting effects".

The X-Linked genes/code also contains unique sequences, which separately influences smaller, but arguably more important parameters like neurotransmitter receptor concentrations and thus influences specifically, Mental Functioning. 

...A parameter one could broadly speak of as pertaining to mainly "Stability" and "Clear-headedness" in this context as well as how one incorporates information into their lives...interestingly, a delusional symptom known as "Ideas of Reference" where one inappropriately and (often) dramatically incorporates elements; voices, words etc from TV/Media into their Life as if it has a direct meaning TO THEM - and directly matters as a "Message for God" or the Like. 

Is often linked to X-Chromosome defects in communication areas of the Brain..which encourages irrational Beliefs; whether expressed as "OCD" or Racing Thoughts or a 'true' Psychotic episode. In some cases, it is too many X-Chromosomes that can lead to Psychotic behaviors or Beliefs; including "Ideas of Reference".
[Gotz M. Results of the present study: XXX womenin Gotz M (ed): The Psychiatric Consequences of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: A Cohort Study Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh; 199662–68.]

This may indicate that, given the conformational roles of secondary genes in Respective Brain-regions associated with each Chromosomes distinct *primary* roles - that the Y-Chromosome can also be seen as a necessary "stability factor". That is - of course in the Gender Relevant; Males.




Many would wonder now how this all relates to either Superior or Inferior "Cognitive Function" domain.

Well since Ideas of Reference are (generally) not something that promotes 'true' Productivity, it should be seen as Inferior Cognitive Function - unless proven otherwise for that individual - but delusional thoughts simply can not be generalized as having "benefit" - even if they "bridge the gap" for Success...the motivational deficit already present within that person hints at a Cognitive Dysfunction that will, if not at the present moment, then later on in that persons Life, become a severe hindrance.

On the other hand, if an X-Chromosome contains the so-called "Genius Equilibrium" code - present in about 1% of European individuals [!] (mainly Swedish & Norman-French) and about 5% of Jewish descent individuals [!] (FOX03A Gene) [Reference 1] [Reference 2]. Then Belief oriented behavior, Grandiose or not, could be portrayed as simply "ECCENTRIC" or "DRAMATIC" - and thus in Donald Trumps case - can be conferring utter 'Cognitive Superiority'. 

The PROOF is in the RESULTS for that Persons Life.

A number of X-linked genes [!] in East Asia may be the key to their frequently claimed unprecedentedly HIGH-INTELLIGENCE level and HIGH Average IQ level [see here].



X-Chromosome and Emotional Conditioning/Adaptation

The X-Chromosome plays a role in genes relating to emotional conditioning and adaptation as well as Social Function in Men & Women [10] [11].

Traits such as Resilience [12] and even darker traits like Machiavellinism or lack of empathy - all of which are seen in Psychopaths, may actually be more linked to X-Chromosome related protein changes [13]. Reading into that study, Klinefelter or XXY-males often* have reduced Empathy and eye-contact.

A Group of Atypical Presentation "Enhanced" Adaptation XXY-Males

Although most Men with an extra-X chromosome have some degree of Intellectual/Cognitive Impairment, sometimes lower IQ's and increased susceptibility to Autism or other "emotional cognition disorders" - there is a small population of XXY-males/Klinefelter Males that seems to exhibit the atypical presentation; Enhanced Adaptation and longevity as well as Superior Cognitive function [14]. One case also had a very HIGH IQ [15].

These could simply be isolated cases and attributed to other factors, but it could also be related to a parallel genetic composition occurring on the mitochondrial DNA in these Men. Since X-Chromosomes are, again, passed from Mother-to-Male-Child and and mtDNA, the same...it would seem that in some cases (few) there can be a "benefit" to alterations in X-encoding in the Male.

...Problem is that usually stops at Cognitive function and does not impact other negatives of having an Extra-X, like reduced Testosterone levels in Men [16] and infertility [17].

In addition, extra-X or "Double X" syndrome in Males/Men seems to increase risk of AutoImmune diseases like Lupus [18].


The Physically/Mentally Weakened "FRAGILE MALE"

The whole 'Momma's Boy' or "weak male" hypothesis - marked by reduced/insignificant social status and introverted, shy/anxious or isolated personality *can* be associated with an Extra-X - although "fragile" in this context is usually talking about bone/muscle abnormalities in XXY-males [19] [20].

The research behind this hypothesis and the X-Chromosome linked issues could be related to Y-Chromosome loss as well - rather than simply an "EXTRA-X" [21]. Thus, XXY-Males or Klinefelter Syndrome Males (diagnosed) are at EXTRA risk if they say, start Smoking or engage in heavy usage of Nicotine.

This appears to be at least partly, related to reduced Testosterone levels in these AFFECTED Men [22] and altered Amygdala nerve activities [23]. NeuroCognitive problems in XXY-males may also stem from altered hormonal balance (imbalance) and brain regional differences [24].

Since Soy and other PHYTO (plant-derived) Estrogens can have unpredictable, sometimes catastrophic effects on Mental Health & Personality - as seen in "Soy-Boy" Phenomenon - it is reasonable to assert that neurotic, pessimistic, negativistic and even Sociopathic traits can be seen as a unique endocrine disorder related to Estrogen-dominance in Men & Women.




AUTISM AND THE X-CHROMOSOME

The X-Marks the Spot with Regards to Autism...

For years we've seen studies linking the X-Chromosome to Autism - but it is complex, in females with Autism the association is there, but less clear [25].
In Males, constituting the Gender with a larger incidence of Autism [26].

Its possible, that altered cell homestasis and cell membrane instability pre-and-post Birth in the developing Brain, caused by deletions, inactivations or X-induced overexpressions of candidate genes may be the central problem wherein Autism develops [27].

Since the X-Chromosome, to a large degree, determines developing Brain Structure (though not wholly so) - it is reasonable to assert that abnormalities may lead to the congenital hyperserotonemia found in Autism [28], and as well, possibly other larger changes [29] [30].

See: Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (NIH/PubMed)


IS IT REALLY JUST A MATTER OF SEX-CHROMOSOMES???

As mentioned in previous paragraphs - the sex chromosome contribution to Brain/Mental Disease states is not SUFFICIENT to explain in totality the  occurrence of the various disorders - just that they are a CONTRIBUTING FACTOR...what happens At first (conception), in-between (prenatally/during pregnancy), post-birth and in early years is all CRITICAL. Things happen at different times and there is no single explanation that fits all. 

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM COMMUNICATION PICTURE

What is it that makes Y-Chromosome LOSS lead to INCREASED risk for CANCER!??

It is - at least in part - defective "immune surveillance" caused by loss of Y-Chromosome mediated immune cell "programming" changes...that is - the Y-CHROMOSOME  appears essential for ACTIVE Immune-cell regeneration and surveillance activities [31].

Think about it like this...you are at a Hospital, Patients constantly coming and going, YOU are an EMPLOYEE - what is ONE DUTY you constantly have? Making sure shit is clean! You inadvertently, have to hunt and destroy germs in attempt to keep people from getting sick (doesn't always work in that setting though!).

You have to have ENERGY to some degree, certainly focus, to make sure every table, seat and bed is CLEAN. Well - your immune cells have to have Energy and Focus too - they need nutrients and in-between MEALS just as we do...

Our meals...guarantee THEIR meals.

...But they also need the Y-Chromosome, which initiates and helps maintain  the whole process [32].

Many Mental Disorders begin with the Immune System.
  1. That is VERY clearly demonstrated as HIV/AIDS Patients develop a multitude of Psychiatric Complains and Disorders + have higher than normal rates of neurodegenerative disorders [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38].
  2. That is demonstrated with Herpes Simplex Viruses, which infiltrate the "neurological immune system" and destroy RAPHE NUCLEI neurons - often leading to Depression and OCD [39] [40] [41].
  3. It is demonstrated as when over-active immune systems, with or without an OFFICIAL autoimmune disorder, can lead to INFLAMMATION related Psychiatric disorders [42] [43] [44].


! THE "GENETIC HISTORY" PICTURE !
 "No I don't necessarily mean we Are Reincarnated as a 15th Century WarLord!"

While many of our Ancestors have had interesting pasts (no doubt all of them) - not every one of our Ancestors lived a Life as a Warrior, or exposing themselves to many Germs, or Traveling abroad so much that they interact with so many germs so as to create a state of "Cell-Memory" passed down to descendants.

...I do believe that certain adaptational traits, that is, Resistance to temperature extremes and Pain, in particular, can be passed down from "Warrior-Ancestors". 

However, it is difficult, sometimes almost impossible, to tell WHICH Warrior passed down which gene and when - and how - and which chromosome, and which part of DNA, and thus which sequence, and thus which proteins as a result of that sequence.

You see...it really is THAT Complicated. 

You can "inherit" certain genes from either Parent, or there are some that influence behavior that you can ABSOLUTELY, assuredly only inherit from ONE-Parent, on ONE-Chromosome (Warrior Gene etc).

There are times where you get a COPY of a certain gene from BOTH parents - then you are what we call a "homozygote" or plural; homozygous for a certain gene.

In some cases...being a homozygote can be a good thing, say you possess the immune cell mutation "Delta-32" and you get a Copy from BOTH Parents...this renders you almost 100% Immune from being infected with HIV [!], without regard to number of exposures, and as well provides resistance to other germs like Smallpox and possibly bubonic Plague (less clear on that one though!).





FLAWS IN TREATMENT METHODS FOR XXY/KLINEFELTER MALES/PATIENTS

Although at times I have great faith in the Medical System to do its job and to efficiently treat, even complex disorders, not all Physicians follow a reasonable code-of-logic

If following the literature, obviously Testosterone-treatment is mechanistically the greatest advantage for an XXY-Male, but if these individuals are also MARKED by Androgen-Insensitivity syndromes, where their body simply DOES NOT use or CONVERT Androgens *properly*...

It would seem a "RECEPTOR-SENSITIZER" + Pure DHT-related compounds would be the way to go...for these individuals.

  1. L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate (mainly) + Acetyl-L-Carnitine (for brain) can boost Androgen (hormone) Receptors [see here].
  2. Pure DHT, in the form of Masteron (drostanolone) injections can saturate without need to convert, the newly built androgen receptors. Mesterolone (Proviron) an oral DHT-tablet, taken by Mouth, has also been used in Klinefelters Syndrome, with moderate success [see here].
  3. Something like DNA-Force of Cell-Fuzion by InfoWars to rejuvenate DNA/Receptor cycles on a mitochondrial level - may be the best route and seems to be consistent with the most conclusive studies [see here] on DNA repair in relation to Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.
***These methods of course have not been tested in direct combination in a large-scale STUDY however, there are NO negative interactions between them and each method alone, from 1 to 3 has shown some MAJOR efficacy in treating XXY-related disorders...mainly Endocrine but also Cognitive [see here].

Carnitine-deficiency is also found in just about every infertile male [!] (side-note).

******CONCLUSIONS******

In this article we have explored many aspects of Chromosomal Disorders - mainly diving into the following Core Concepts (take-backs).


  1. That defects in Y-Chromosomes, loss of Y-Chromosomes (as with smokers) and other Y-abnormalities working towards a "deficient" picture, negatively impact the immune system; both regeneration and surveillance, and this can give rise to viral infections which exploit such a vulnerability - that otherwise may have not made their way into the Brain nor hindered any aspect of Cognitive/Intellectual function IF they were already present.

  • That is to say, that a long-term Smoker, may then have loss of Y-Chromosomes, not realizing that a few months down the road, or maybe years (if they are lucky) - that the elusive T.Gondii germ hiding in their blood, or that nasty Cold Sore, as a result of their SMOKING-induced Y-chromosome loss - all of a sudden EVOLVE and they fall ill to a new pattern of Mental Illness and perhaps later on...a neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson's Disease (PD)or Alzheimer's Disease - as a result of an unchecked infection, that COULD have been "CHECKED" if one didn't DESTROY their Y-Chromosomes by Smoking or otherwise USING Tobacco products.
  • That sex chromosomes carry DNA that impacts Brain Structure & development and heavily influences Behavior as a result. Every Castle is built differently, likewise, every Brain is built differently, the size of regions thus the and structure of which - is directly related to the Behavior and Personality of the Person in question.
  • That parts of code, that is genetic sequences, can be altered, carry "inactivation" variants - silencing commands or other such variants that influence neurotransmitters and thus susceptibility to Mental Illness and other Brain Disorders.
  • X-Linked Genes; such as the MAO-Variant "Warrior-Gene" can predispose one to DEFENSIVE [!] or PROVOCATION-related Violence/Aggression [see here], including "negative face reaction" - and increase Risk-taking behavior [!] - though this gene can also promote "good-assessment of risk" and thus can translate to "good judgement" or effective Judgement calls...THAT'S WHY PSYCHOPATHS are SUCH EFFECTIVE BUSINESS OWNERS!!! 
  • That abnormal forms of Cognition (Paranoid Cognition and Ideas of Reference) can be related to intelligence and yet can be seen as Inferior Cognition or Superior Cognition. That each, would depend on the individual and also that these "abnormal" forms of Cognition can be related to specific attributes/sequences contained on the X-Chromosome.
  • That Y-Chromosomes can play a role as a "Stability Factor" and thus can act to to provide a functional and stable Brain function and internal 'pace'. That 'missing' and / or 'deleted' Y-Chromosomes can lead to Anxiety Disorders [!], Schizophrenia [!] and other particularly severe Mental Illnesses. Other chromosomal studies such as this one in an Icelandic population sample justify this research.

***OTHER CENTRAL SOURCES/REFERENCES***

Common Genetic Factors Found in 5 Mental Disorders (National Institute of Health/NIH/PubMed)

Brain study confirms gene mutation link to psychiatric disorders (Science Daily)

Major mental illnesses unexpectedly share brain gene activity, raising hope for better diagnostics and therapies (ScienceMag)

Role of testosterone and Y chromosome genes for the masculinization of the human brain. (NIH/PubMed)

Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence (NIH/PubMed)

Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature (NIH/PubMed)


Large study uncovers genes linked to intelligence (The Conversation)

The highly intelligent Normans? (Intelligence, Personality and Genius Blog)

Scientists identify gene linking brain structure to intelligence. (NEWS: Kings College London)

Intelligence Is Inherited Only from Your Mother? (SNOPES: Fact Check!)



In/Tags: chromosome disorders and psychiatric disorders, chromosome disorders and brain, y-chromosome loss and schizophrenia, y chromosome deletion and mental illness, x-linked psychiatric diseases 2018, chromosomes and sociopathic behavior, dna repair sex chromosome abnormalities.

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